Brown sun spots and sun damage are called hyperpigmentation, which is a common, usually condition in which patches of skin become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin, the brown pigment that produces normal skin color, forms deposits in the skin.
What Is Hyperpigmentation?
Hyperpigmentation is characterized by a darkening of an area of skin caused by the overproduction of a pigment in the skin known as melanin. It is relatively common and usually harmless, but for cosmetic reasons, it is a nuisance to those who have it.
Hyperpigmentation is the result of either of two occurrences: (1) an abnormally high concentration of melanocytes produce melanin or (2) when melanocytes are hyperactive. For instance, sun exposure stimulates the production of melanin. Although it can affect anyone, this condition is more prevalent among certain ethnicities such as Asian, Mediterranean, African, or Latin. Hyperpigmentation can affect any part of the body including the face, hands, and neck.
Causes of Hyperpigmentation:
Hyperpigmentation is the result of an over production of melanin. Melanin is what gives skin and hair its color, helps protect skin against damaging UV light and absorbs heat from the sun. However, an overproduction of melanin stimulated by excessive sun exposure, hormones, or scarring, leads to a mottled, uneven skin tone. Sun spots are typically the result of excessive exposure to the sun over time.